Growing evidence indicates an important link between gut microbiota, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Alterations in exocrine pancreatic function are also widely present in patients with diabetes and obesity. To examine this interaction, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a chow diet, high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD plus oral vancomycin or metronidazole to modify the gut microbiome. HFD alone leads to a 40% increase in pancreas weight, decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY levels, and increased glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in the plasma. Quantitative proteomics identified 138 host proteins in fecal samples of these mice, of which 32 were significantly changed by HFD. The most significant of these were the pancreatic enzymes. These changes in amylase and elastase were reversed by antibiotic treatment. These alterations could be reproduced by transferring gut microbiota from donor C57BL/6J mice to germ-free. By contrast, antibiotics had no effect on pancreatic size or exocrine function in C57BL/6J mice fed a chow diet. Further, one week vancomycin administration significantly increased amylase and elastase levels in obese prediabetic men. Thus, the alterations in gut microbiota in obesity can alter pancreatic growth, exocrine function and gut endocrine function, and may contribute to the alterations observed in patients with obesity and diabetes.
AIMS: Insulin potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These effects are attenuated in beta cell-specific insulin receptor knockout mice and insulin resistant humans. This investigation examines whether short duration insulin exposure regulates beta cell responsiveness to arginine, a non-glucose secretagogue, in healthy humans.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Arginine-stimulated insulin secretion was studied in 10 healthy humans. In each subject arginine was administered as a bolus followed by continuous infusion on two occasions one month apart, after sham/saline or hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp, respectively providing low and high insulin pre-exposure conditions. Arginine-stimulated insulin secretion was measured by C-peptide deconvolution, and by a selective immunogenic (DAKO) assay for direct measurement of endogenous but not exogenous insulin.
RESULTS: Pre-exposure to exogenous insulin augmented arginine-stimulated insulin secretion. The effect was seen acutely following arginine bolus (endogenous DAKO insulin incremental AUC240-255min 311.6 ± 208.1 (post-insulin exposure) versus 120.6 ± 42.2 μU/ml•min (sham/saline) (t-test P = 0.021)), as well as in response to continuous arginine infusion (DAKO insulin incremental AUC260-290min 1095.3 ± 592.1 (sham/saline) versus 564.8 ± 207.1 μU/ml•min (high insulin)(P = 0.009)). Findings were similar when beta cell response was assessed using C-peptide, insulin secretion rates by deconvolution, and the C-peptide to glucose ratio.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a physiologic role of insulin in regulation of the beta cell secretory response to arginine.
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